Pre-requisite: A pass in higher secondary with mathematics as one of the
On successful completion of this course learners will be able to apply the basic
principles of chemistry in comprehending and investigating chemical reactions.
1. To develop the concept of equilibrium and its application to study chemical
2. To introduce the concept of radioactivity and its applications.
3. To introduce the basic principles of metallurgy.
4. To introduce organic functional groups and biomolecules.
Unit I Chemical Equilibrium:
The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium, The Equilibrium Constant (K),
Heterogeneous Equilibria: Reactions involving Solids and Liquids, Calculating
the Equilibrium Constant, The Reaction Quotient: Predicting the Direction of
Change, Finding Equilibrium Concentrations, Le Châtelier’s Principle, solubility
equilibria, complex ion equilibria
Unit II Acids and Bases
Definitions, Acid strength and acid dissociation constant, auto ionization of water
and pH, strong and weak acids, base solutions, buffers, acid-base properties of
ions, polyprotic acids, Lewis concept
Buffers, range and capacity, titration pH curves - Balancing redox reactions,
Galvanic cells and spontaneous chemical reactions, standard electrode
potential, cell potential, free energy and equilibrium constant, corrosion
Unit IV Radioactivity and metallurgy
Discovery, types, valley of stability of nucleus, detection, kinetics of radioactivity,
fission, mass defect and nuclear energy, fusion, nuclear transmutation and
trans-uranium elements, application in medicine – natural distribution of metals,
metallurgical processes, metal structure and alloys, basic information about
Unit V Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
Nature of carbon, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon reactions, aromatic hydrocarbons,
functional groups: alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers,
amines – Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, protein structure,
nucleic acids, DNA
Chemistry A Molecular approach, Nivaldo J Tro, 4ed, Pearson, 2017
Course outcome: On successful completion of this course learners will be able to (a) Comprehend the evolution of electronic structure of atom (b) Use quantum numbers and atomic orbital equations to visualize the shapes of orbitals (c) Recognize the relationship between position of an element in periodic table and its atomic properties and the periodic trend in properties (d) Explain the concept of chemical bonding (e) Analyse the properties of gases, liquids, solids and solutions
1.To develop conceptual knowledge about the electronic structure of atom, organization of periodic table and trend in atomic properties, properties of physical states of matter.
2.Apply the concepts to write electronic configuration of elements. Comprehend, analyse and predict type of chemical bonds and properties of matter.
This course will explore the application of quantum
mechanics to understanding chemical phenomena, with special emphasis on atomic
structure and properties. The postulates of quantum mechanics will be
introduced and applied to simple systems. Examination of the simple, yet
practically useful, harmonic oscillator and rigid rotor systems will lead into
discussion of hydrogenic atoms and hybridization.
Intended Outcomes for the course:
the postulates of quantum mechanics to simple systems of chemical interest,
such as the particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator, rigid rotor, hydrogenic
atoms, hybrid orbitals.
shall be able to visualize atomic orbitals of hydrogenic atoms
have ability to solve introductory problems in quantum mechanics
have ability to identify various molecular symmetry elements and their
operations and construct group multiplication table and character table.
Unit I: Blackbody radiation - photoelectric effect -
Hydrogen emission and Rydberg formula - Louis de Broglie postulate - Bohr
theory - Heisenberg Uncertainty
Unit II: Classical wave equation - oscillating string -
superposition of normal modes - vibrating membrane - Schrodinger equation and
particle in a box – - Eigen values - quantized energy values and quantum number
- uncertainty principle - probabilistic interpretation of wave function - free
particles – particle in rectangular well – tunnelling
Unit III: Postulates and General principles in quantum
mechanics - properties of operators, Eigen functions, Eigen values,
normalization, orthogonality, commuting and non-commuting operators
Unit IV: Solution to Harmonic Oscillator - solution to rigid
rotor - solution to hydrogen atom - quantum numbers - atomic orbitals - Hybrid
atomic orbitals - construction and visualization of hybrid atomic orbitals -
sp, sp2, sp3, dsp2, dsp3, d2sp3 - shape and directional behaviour
Unit V: Symmetry elements and Operations, point groups,
Physical Chemistry, A molecular approach, Donald A McQuarrie
and John D Simon, 1998, Viva Books Limited
For Unit 5: Molecular symmetry and Group Theory, A programmed
introduction to chemical applications, Alan Vincent, 2ed, John Wiley, 2001
Unit I (Kinetics of Electrode Reactions): Mass transfer by Diffusion and Migration – models of electrode reactions – current potential characteristics – general mass transfer equation , migration and diffusion Unit II (Potential Step Methods): Types of techniques, step under diffusion control, Ilkovic equation – polarographic analysis – sampled current voltammetry: reversible, irreversible processes, multicomponent systems Unit III (Chrono Methods): Chronoamperometry, chrono coulometry – pulse polarographic methods: Tast pulse, normal pulse, differential pulse Unit IV (Potential Sweep Methods): Cyclic Voltammetry: Nernstian reversible, totally irreversible, quasi-reversible processes, multicomponent systems – convolute or semi-integral techniques Unit V (Bulk Electrolysis Techniques): Classification of methods – Controlled Potential methods: current – time behaviour, electrogravimetry, electro-separation – Coulometric measurements: controlled current methods: characteristics, coulometric methods – Electrometric end point detection: classification, potentiometric, amperometry methods.
Unit II (Statistical Thermodynamics – Partition function and implications)
Probability, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, Boltzmann statistics and distribution and sterling’s approximation, Partition function and thermodynamic properties - Partition function- translational, rotational, vibrational, electronic,- entropy, energy and heat capacity – heat capacity of solids – equilibrium constant
Unit III (Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics)
Entropy production, flux-force relationship, Onsager reciprocal relationship, electrochemical potential, steady state entropy
Unit IV (Reaction Dynamics)
Potential energy surfaces-electronically excited molecules, bimolecular collisions, Molecular beam Scattering, statistical approach of reaction dynamics to transition state theory, unimolecular reaction dynamics, transition state theory of solution reactions, kramers’s theory,
Unit V (Electrode Kinetics)
Electrical double layer, Aspects of electrochemical reactions, elucidation of mechanism of an electrode reaction
Chem: 321 Organic chemistry II Theme Functional group transformations.
Objectives: To analyse the structure of given organic molecules and identify reaction centers. Recognize the reactivity pattern. Predict the outcome of the reaction. Explain the mechanism
Organic chemistry concepts related to functional group transformations will be discussed. A mechanism based approach will be adopted. Factors contributing to the reactivity pattern will be discussed. Discussion will be centered around analysis of structure of given organic substrate, identification of reactive parts of the molecule, recognizing the electronic nature of the reaction centers and reagents, predicting overall transformation and justifying the transformation.
Unit I (Heterocycles)
Chemistry of five and six–membered aromatic heterocycles with one hetero atom-
synthesis and reactions of pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, indole, quinoline and
isoquinoline and biologically important heterocycles
(Chapter 27 of Bruice)
Unit II (Carbohydrates and Lipids)
Carbohydrates: Classification, configuration of aldoses and ketoses, reactions of
monosaccharides, chain elangation, chain shortening, stereochemistry of glucose, the
Fischer proof, cyclic structure of mono saccharides, formation of glycosides, reducing and
non-reducing sugar, determination of ring size, di-saccharides and poly-saccharides.
(Chapter 20 of Bruice.)
Lipids: Fatty acids, waxes, fats and oils, membranes .
(Chapter 24 of Bruice)
Unit III (Amino acids, peptides and proteins)
Classification and nomenclature of amino acids – configuration of amino acids, acid-base
amino acids—isoelectric points—primary structure of peptides – end terminal analysis –
peptides synthesis—secondary structure of proteins tertiary and quaternary structure of
(Chapter 21 of Bruice.)
Unit IV (Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids)
Nucleosides and nucleotides, nucleic acids, helical forms of DNA, DNA replication.
(Chapter 25 of Bruice).
Unit V (Polymers and drugs)
Introduction to synthetic polymers: General classes of synthetic polymers, chain growth
polymers, stereo chemistry of polymerization, polymerization of dienes, co-polymers,
step-growth polymers, physical properties of polymers, bio-degradable polymers.
(Chapter 26 of Bruice)
Introduction to organic chemistry of drugs: Naming drugs, lead compounds, molecular
modification, random screening, serendipity in drug development, receptors, drugs as
enzyme inhibitors, QSAR, anti-viral drugs (Chapter 30 of Bruice.)
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