CHEM121 Principles of General Chemistry II

Pre-requisite: A pass in higher secondary with mathematics as one of the subjects On successful completion of this course learners will be able to apply the basic principles of chemistry in comprehending and investigating chemical reactions. 

Course Objectives 

1. To develop the concept of equilibrium and its application to study chemical phenomenon. 

2. To introduce the concept of radioactivity and its applications. 

3. To introduce the basic principles of metallurgy. 

4. To introduce organic functional groups and biomolecules.

Course Content: 

Unit I Chemical Equilibrium: 

The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium, The Equilibrium Constant (K), Heterogeneous Equilibria: Reactions involving Solids and Liquids, Calculating the Equilibrium Constant, The Reaction Quotient: Predicting the Direction of Change, Finding Equilibrium Concentrations, Le Châtelier’s Principle, solubility equilibria, complex ion equilibria 

Unit II Acids and Bases 

Definitions, Acid strength and acid dissociation constant, auto ionization of water and pH, strong and weak acids, base solutions, buffers, acid-base properties of ions, polyprotic acids, Lewis concept 

Unit III Ionic equilibrium and electrochemistry 

Buffers, range and capacity, titration pH curves - Balancing redox reactions, Galvanic cells and spontaneous chemical reactions, standard electrode potential, cell potential, free energy and equilibrium constant, corrosion 

Unit IV Radioactivity and metallurgy 

Discovery, types, valley of stability of nucleus, detection, kinetics of radioactivity, fission, mass defect and nuclear energy, fusion, nuclear transmutation and trans-uranium elements, application in medicine – natural distribution of metals, metallurgical processes, metal structure and alloys, basic information about transition metals 

Unit V Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry 

Nature of carbon, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon reactions, aromatic hydrocarbons, functional groups: alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, amines – Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, protein structure, nucleic acids, DNA 


Chemistry A Molecular approach, Nivaldo J Tro, 4ed, Pearson, 2017

Teacher: Aravindan N